One of the pillars of Democratic Party orthodoxy today is the push for free college for all. At the state level, one of the most ambitious programs is to be found in New York, where the Excelsior Scholarship program has rendered tuition-free both 2 and 4 year public colleges throughout the state for students whose family income is under $125,000 per year. Approximately 17 states now offer some form of free college to their residents, and it seems likely that more states will develop these sorts of programs in the years ahead.
These free college programs are not, of course, without their critics.
Many have pointed out that these programs many times actually function as a massive subsidy offered to middle class families that previously did not qualify for income-based scholarships; poor students have long paid nominal—or zero— tuition costs due to existing federal and state aid programs targeted to low-income students and their families. Moreover, these free college programs are typically available only to those who attend full-time, which locks out those who need to work while attending school in order to cover their daily living expenses. Although the college tuition might be free, students still need food in their stomachs, clothes on their backs, and a roof over their heads, which may greatly restrict the use of many these free college programs.
In addition, “free” is a deceptive term to use because these programs are certainly not free for taxpayers. The New York State program, although much more limited in actual scope than advertised because of the many restrictions attached, still carries a price tag of $87 million this year alone—with costs estimated to rise to at least $163 million annually when fully implemented.
However, the fundamental problem with free college is simple and direct: Access does not equal success. The scandalous and continuing national crisis of inadequate college preparedness at the K-12 level—which decades of incredibly expensive “education reform” has yet to address—translates into a great many students starting college but failing to complete.
How widespread is this problem? Tennessee has for many years offered free tuition to the state’s community colleges at a taxpayer cost of only $45 million annually—keeping the outlay lower by covering only that portion of tuition not already picked up by federal Pell Grants.
However, although the costs might be relatively low for Tennessee’s taxpayers, there is still ample reason to question whether this is a wise investment of state funds. Data shows that during the 2016-2017 school year nearly half of the state’s high school graduates required remedial coursework during their first year of college—and nearly half had dropped out after two years. No matter how much educators might want to try to talk their way around it by desperately pointing to other factors that sometimes affect college completion, it is plain that the promised economic and individual benefits of free college are colliding headlong with the disappointing academic preparation that is the daily reality of America’s public schools.
Therefore, looking at the soaring promises of the politicians and educators who advocate putting taxpayers even further on the hook for the costs of free college, a reasonable person might be prompted to ask if the reality is somewhat different from the rhetoric—and whether the estimated $70 billion needed to fund the “College For All” plans supported by many Democrats is a good use of scarce tax dollars when our national debt now tops $22 trillion.
The many well-meaning promises attached to college that is “free” still will be hampered by the vast number of American high school graduates who are academically unprepared to succeed in college—free or otherwise. If we want these taxpayer dollars to have the impact we hope that they will, we need to be smart enough—and brave enough—to ask whether “college for all” actually means failure for many. Rather than asking taxpayers to pay for college students to again try to learn material that should have been mastered in high school, perhaps a more impactful program would tie taxpayer support to documented student academic preparedness for college-level coursework.
However annoying this discussion might be for those politicians who are anxious to create yet another endlessly expensive entitlement funded by already beleaguered taxpayers, it seems sensible to ask a few difficult questions now about this hazy dream in order to prevent a great deal of money from being pointlessly wasted in the years ahead.
Higher education is important, and we now know—all too well—that our burdensome and outrageous student loan programs have been an unmitigated disaster that has both enabled obscene increases in college costs and created a gigantic debtor class of Americans whose financial futures are terribly hobbled. Perhaps it could be persuasively argued that any college experience is beneficial, so free college would be a worthwhile taxpayer expense—regardless of the outcomes. This is a viewpoint deserving of careful consideration—as is the idea that money spent on education can never truly be “wasted” in the manner that other tax dollars often are.
Nonetheless, it might be worth stopping and thinking before we rush to pay for many students to make a pit stop on a college campus—only to later leave with little learning and no credential. College is a great experience for many, but it may be the case that we still have thinking to do about how we pay for it—and whether “free” is the best path forward. Perhaps some combination of grants and merit-based scholarships will be the mix that provides the magic. Before any further decisions are made to create a new line in the federal financial ledger, we need to carefully study the long-term experiences of state-level programs—particularly regarding the impacts on student success.
However, whatever direction we ultimately take from here, we also need to give immediate consideration to the question of how we can relieve the frightening burden of the student loans that are now ruining the lives of many. We cannot continue to ask so many to pay for a grievous past error in government policy that became a trap for so many Americans and their families, and I believe this is the step we must first take before we decide how to help those who will attend college in the future.